Sama Sindhi in Pakistan

Main Language
Largest Religion
Progress Gauge
* From latest Pakistan census data.
Current Christian values may substantially differ.

Introduction / History

The Sama Sindhi are a group of Muslims who live in Pakistan The majority of Muslim Sindhi from India moved to Pakistan during the Partition of 1947. Equal numbers of Hindu and Sikh Sindhi immigrated to India. The word Sindhi comes from the Persian word meaning those who inhabit the Indus Valley. All Sindhi were originally Hindu or Buddhist. In the early 8th century, many of these people converted to Islam with the coming of the Muslim armies. The Sama Sindhi claim to be descendants of the rulers of the Samma Dynasty. This royal family reigned over the Indus Valley and west India from the 14th to early 16th century.

Today, most of the Sama Sindhi are engaged in irrigation farming. Their principal crops include wheat, rice, cotton, sugarcane, various fruits, and oilseed. Some farmers also raise sheep, goats, and camels. The Sindhi living in cities often work as merchants, physicians, lawyers and teachers.

The primary language of the Sama Sindhi in Pakistan is Sindhi. They also speak Urdu and other regional Pakistani languages.

Where Are they Located?

The Sama Sindhi live in the Indus Valley in the southeast region of Pakistan.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The lives of the Sama Sindhi are diverse depending upon whether they live in urban or rural areas. The rural Sama live lives much like their ancestors.

The family is the basic unity of Sama Sindhi society, with the male head being the authority. Unlike other Muslims, the Sindhi tend to organize in caste groups based on clan and occupation. The Sindhi do not marry outside of their own caste. Marriages between cousins are common. The wedding ceremony includes a reading from the Koran and is performed by a local Muslim teacher or priest.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Most of the Sama Sindhi are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi School. The majority of the rural Sindhi, however, have no clear understanding of their Muslim faith and still believe in folk spirits. Before 1947, many Hindu and Muslim practices were combined. For example, it was not uncommon for both Hindus and Muslims to venerate the same saint. Today, the practice of saint worship still persists among the rural Sama.

Islam is a major world religion that is based on five essential duties or "pillars": (1) A Muslim must affirm that "there is no god but Allah and Mohammed is his prophet." (2) Five times a day he must pray while facing Mecca. (3) He must give an obligatory percentage (very similar to tithes) on an annual basis. (4) He must fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim year. (5) He must try to make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in his lifetime. Muslims are also prohibited to drink alcohol, eat pork, gamble, steal, use deceit, slander, and make idols.

The two main holidays for Sunni Muslims are Eid al Fitr, the breaking of the monthly fast and Eid al Adha, the celebration of Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son to Allah.

What Are Their Needs?

The Sama Sindhi need to hear the life-changing message of Jesus Christ in a way they can understand. Sindhi who live in a rural setting need help in educating their children and in learning new job skills.

Prayer Points

* Scripture Prayers for the Sindhi Sama in Pakistan.

* Ask God to send missionary teams who will go to the Sama Sindhi and share the gospel with them.
* Pray for effectiveness of the Jesus film among the Sindhi, with many conversions resulting.
* Pray that strong local churches will be raised up among the Sindh.


Profile Source:   David Kugel  

Additional Info
Global Prayer Digest: 2007-09-08
Global Prayer Digest: 2007-11-08
Global Prayer Digest: 2008-08-05
Global Prayer Digest: 2019-08-20
People Name General Sindhi Sama
People Name in Country Sindhi Sama
Pronunciation SAH-muh SIN-dee
Natural Name Sama Sindhi
Population this Country 1,307,000
Population all Countries 1,308,000
Total Countries 2
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
Pioneer Workers Needed 26
Alternate Names Chuda Samma; Dungar Summa; Gha Samma; Saheb Samma; Samma; सिंधी समा
People ID 18164
ROP3 Code 113676
Country Pakistan
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 5  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Specialized Website South Asia Peoples
Country Pakistan
Region Asia, South
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 5  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Total States 1
  Sindh 1,307,000
Website South Asia Peoples
Primary Language Sindhi
Language Code snd   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 4
Secondary Languages
Marwari Saraiki Urdu
Primary Language Sindhi
Language Code snd   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 4
Secondary Languages
People Groups Speaking Sindhi

Primary Language:  Sindhi

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (1825-1981)
Bible-New Testament Yes  (1890-1992)
Bible-Complete Yes  (1954)
Bible-NT Audio Online
Bible-NT Text Online
Possible Print Bibles
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching (GRN)
Audio Recordings Online New Testament (FCBH)
Audio Recordings Oral Bible
Audio Recordings Story of Jesus audio (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video Video / Animation
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Sindhi
Film / Video Magdalena (Jesus Film Project)
Film / Video The Hope Video
Film / Video The Prophets' Story
General Gospel website in this language
General Got Questions Ministry
Mobile App Download Audio Bible app as APK File from FCBH
Text / Printed Matter Bible: Common Language New Testament
Text / Printed Matter Online Bible text (Scripture Earth)
Text / Printed Matter World Missionary Press Booklets
Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religion Percent *
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
0.00 %
0.00 %
100.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
* From latest Pakistan census data.
Current Christian values may substantially differ.
Photo Source (Representative photo)
Victor Sardar 
Map Source People Group Location: Omid. Other geography / data: GMI. Map Design: Joshua Project  
Profile Source David Kugel  
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Read more


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