Jenaama Bozo in Côte d'Ivoire

Main Language
Largest Religion
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

Name: From the Bambara term 'Boso' (meaning 'straw-house,' a reference to dwellings located in temporary fishing camps); used for an entire ethnic group. "The Bozo" is really three distinct people groups speaking four varieties of the so called Bozo language. (These varieties are not too close, so spontaneous comprehension is difficult.) Within this assignment all three groups will be discussed and described. There are a couple of different Bozo groups, one of which is the Jenaama. This group has their own language.
Climate: Hot, dry; temperatures generally range from 22-40 degrees C.
Livelihood: Fishing/boating, farming (principally rice and millet) and commerce.
Housing: Commonly sun-dried, mud brick houses in small, compact villages or straw huts in camps along the riverside (hence the name Bozo).
Languages: Jenaama, Tigemaxo, Tiemacewe and Kelinga or Hainyaxo.
Future Plans: Continue linguistic and cultural research; promote Bozo literacy in government schools; start Bible translation in the two major Bozo varieties (Tigemaxo and Jenaama); promote Scripture use through print and non-print media.
The major historical facts concerning the Bozo people that might affect their receptivity to the Christian message are as follows. The people group has been Muslims for about two to three generations and does not have a history of being Christian. They are a smaller people group with neighboring groups that have Christian churches, thus giving the impression that Christianity is okay for the Dogon or Bobo people groups who were not highly Muslim. France colonized the country and has made a certain impression on the people groups as to what Christians are (i.e. like French). The Bozo are limited in their education as few people go to school. Also, few people understand French which makes them less accessible.
The Bozo live mostly in the Mopti region in the interior delta, but also dispersed around Mali and other West-African countries where there are rivers and dams. These people are migrating to Bamako in significant numbers, but perhaps with no great concentration in one place, dispersed through the city, but some along the river; as seasonal nomads along the river systems as far as Timbuktoo; to Mopti.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The Bozo people highly value community. This is true whether they are village elders or women at a communal water well. Many of them are fishermen and there are fishing camps made up of straw huts on the Niger River islands. The Bozo also work in rice fields.
The women are often maintaining their fires, pounding millet for porridge, scrubbing blackened pots and re-muddling the outsides for cooking again. They can also be seen carding and spinning cotton or other chores. It is also their job to prepare the fish for selling and sell it in the market.
Things however are changing for the Bozo as their lives are becoming more modernized. Technology is leveling the tropics - cell phones, video, CD players, television, and satellites are making a huge impact on the society. Money and goods are becoming an important commodity. There is increased accessibility by boat or road, making travel easier and more possible. There is becoming an increase of knowledge and education within the tribe as some are going to school in other villages. Overall, there is very little education within the people group. In general, this people group is becoming more aware of the world outside them.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Most of them are Muslim, but they blend Islam with traditional spirit workship. Both national and expatriate missionaries are doing evangelism.

What Are Their Needs?

There are various factors to consider when determining how to initially reach out to them. Tribes are vanishing faster than mission organizations are succeeding in translating Scripture into their languages. In general, tribal groups are refugees, living in perpetual fear of aggression from other tribes or powerful civilizations. Often they are able to survive by finding out how to live where no one else would want the land. This is important to realize that the Bozos are a nomadic people and are thus on the move. It is important to be willing to travel along with them. Also, this tribal group is animistic, beneath the Muslim surface there is a strong animistic undercurrent. They already have their own distinctive religious systems and worldviews. It will be thus important to slowly enter the society and gradually become accepted. This people group will likely not respond to being directly evangelized.

Prayer Points

Pray that mission organizations and churches will accept the challenge of adopting and reaching the Bozo of Mali.
Ask the Lord to send loving Christians from Mali and other parts of Africa to the Bozo to share the Gospel with them.
Pray that God will grant wisdom and favor to the mission agencies that are focusing on this people group.
Ask the Lord to save key leaders among the Bozo who will boldly declare the Gospel.
Ask the Lord to raise up strong local churches among the Bozo in his timing.

Scripture Prayers for the Bozo, Jenaama in Côte d'Ivoire.


Christy Edwards

Profile Source:   Joshua Project  

People Name General Bozo, Jenaama
People Name in Country Bozo, Jenaama
Natural Name Jenaama Bozo
Pronunciation yeh-NAH-mah BOH-zoh
Alternate Names Boso; Sorogama Bozo; Sorogoye
Population this Country 23,000
Population all Countries 457,000
Total Countries 3
Indigenous No
Progress Scale 1
Unreached Yes
Frontier People Group Yes
GSEC 1  (per
Pioneer Workers Needed 1
People ID 15003
ROP3 Code 109426
ROP25 Code 301402
ROP25 Name Bozo
Country Côte d'Ivoire
Region Africa, West and Central
Continent Africa
10/40 Window No
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Mopti region: Djenné and Mopti circles on Niger river, Tenenkou and Youwarou circles; Ségou region: Niger river, upstream from Mopti. Also in Korhogo city.   Source:  Ethnologue 2022 and field worker
Country Côte d'Ivoire
Region Africa, West and Central
Continent Africa
10/40 Window No
Persecution Rank Not ranked
Location in Country Mopti region: Djenné and Mopti circles on Niger river, Tenenkou and Youwarou circles; Ségou region: Niger river, upstream from Mopti. Also in Korhogo city..   Source:  Ethnologue 2022 and field worker
Map of Bozo, Jenaama in Côte d'Ivoire Ethnolinguistic map or other map

Primary Religion: Islam
Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 0.00 %)
0.00 %
Ethnic Religions
20.00 %
0.00 %
80.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
Primary Language Bozo, Jenaama (23,000 speakers)
Language Code bze   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 1
Primary Language Bozo, Jenaama (23,000 speakers)
Language Code bze   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 1
People Groups Speaking Bozo, Jenaama

Primary Language:  Bozo, Jenaama

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes  (2008-2017)
Bible-New Testament No
Bible-Complete No
Possible Print Bibles
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name Source
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching Global Recordings Network
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Bozo, Jenaama Jesus Film Project
General Scripture Earth Gospel resources links Scripture Earth
Photo Source Ferdinand Reus - Wikimedia  Creative Commons 
Map Source People Group location: IMB. Map geography: ESRI / GMI. Map design: Joshua Project.  
Profile Source Joshua Project 
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Learn more.

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