Introduction / History
The Sama peoples were originally in the islands and coastal areas separating southwestern Mindanao from the northeastern islands of Sulu. They probably first dispersed in the first millennium A.D. because of expanding Chinese trade. This southward migration accelerated in the fifteenth century with the founding of a Sulu sultanate and increased maritime trade. From bases, particularly on Balangingi Island, Sama slave traders carried out annual raids on coastal settlements from Luzon to the central Moluccas.
What Are Their Lives Like?
Individual Sama groups, such as the Pangutaran Sama, identify themselves by dialect and geographic location. Their dialect is almost intelligible with those of other Sama peoples. The Pangutaran Sama people live on four small islands in the southern Philippines.
The Sama are a highly fragmented people without overall political unity. Some have assimilated into the Filipino culture, attending schools and working in small businesses within local cities as vendors. Christians, primarily Catholics, have reached out to help these people in the areas of health and education. The Catholic Presentation Nuns sponsor Badjao children in school.
What Are Their Beliefs?
Fishing, boat building, and iron working are primarily male occupations, while weaving mats and marketing pottery are jobs for women. Both men and women engage in collecting and selling valuables from the sea, such as sea cucumbers. They are also farmers. The Pangutaran Sama grow rice, cassava, corn, ginger, sugar cane, bananas, and other tropical fruits.
Pangutaran Sama settlements comprise densely clustered houses along well-protected stretches of shoreline. In some places, they build their homes directly over the sea, but in other places, they locate them along the beachfront. If over the water, planks or narrow bridges connect them. Built on stilts one to three meters above the ground or high-water mark, houses usually have one rectangular room with an attached kitchen.
Households are grouped into larger units called tumpuks (clusters), which are located near one another and are related by close kinship ties. Within the village, one household head is acknowledged as the tumpuk spokesman. In some instances, the tumpuks coincide with the parishes, whose members belong to a single mosque.
The Pangutaran Sama are known for their traditional dances, songs, percussion and xylophone music, dyed mats and food covers, and wood carvings. Wood carvings for graves are especially ornate.
They are an Islamic people group, following the Sunni traditions while mixing them with elements of animism. They believe that the spirits of the dead remain in the vicinity of their graves, requiring expressions of continued concern from the living. They have reported that some of these graves are the source of miracle working power.
What Are Their Needs?
The Sama peoples believe that during a particular month, Allah permits the souls of the dead to return to this world. To honor them, the living offer special prayers to the dead and clean the graves.
The Pangutaran Sama people need to put their faith in the Risen Savior, Jesus Christ rather than in dead ancestors.
Pray for the Holy Spirit to give the Pangutaran Sama people teachable and understanding hearts.
Pray that a strong movement of the Holy Spirit will bring entire Pangutaran Sama families into a rich experience of God's blessing.
Pray for Pangutaran Sama families to be drawn by the Holy Spirit to seek forgiveness, and to understand the adequacy of Christ's work on the cross.
Pray for teams of believers to do sustained, focused prayer for the Lord to open the hearts of Pangutaran Sama family leaders to experience God's blessing through a movement of family-based discovery Bible studies.
Scripture Prayers for the Sama, Pangutaran in Philippines.