Manggarai in Indonesia

The Manggarai have only been reported in Indonesia
Main Language
Largest Religion
Progress Gauge

Introduction / History

Indonesia is the fourth most populous nation and continues to grow rapidly. It has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in the world, with several hundred distinct people groups, many of whom are Muslim. Located in southeastern Asia, the many islands of Indonesia command vital sea routes between Australia, Europe, and the Asian mainland. These islands are the principal link between the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

The Manggarai are located in the western portion of Flores Island in the province of Nusa Tenggara. They are close neighbors to the Bima and the Timorese. Their language, which is also called Manggarai, is a member of the Austronesian language family and has 47 sub-dialects. Little is known concerning the specific lifestyle and culture of the Manggarai; however, it is reasonably assumed that they are fairly typical of the other ethnic groups living in Nusa Tenggara.

What Are Their Lives Like?

The island of Flores is extremely mountainous, with peaks that rise more than 7,000 feet and a number of active volcanoes. The interior of the island is heavily forested, and the few rivers that traverse the island are not navigable. The climate is tropical, with little daily variation in temperature. There is, however, a marked division between wet and dry seasons.

The principal agricultural products cultivated are corn, rice, coconuts, cinnamon, coffee, tobacco, cotton, and wax. Fruits and vegetables are grown in the gardens around the villages. Livestock and poultry are also raised, and there is some exploitation of mineral deposits. Large quantities of mother-of-pearl are obtained from the fisheries of the Flores Sea. Fishing appears to be relatively unimportant, although the people do have fish ponds from which they extract salt during the dry season.

A Manggarai village is often composed of small individual settlements. In the mountains, the people live on swiddens (land that has been cleared by "slash and burn" agriculture) for part of the year. After harvesting the crops, however, they return to their home village. Each village usually has its own mosque. The head of the mosque is responsible for all ceremonies, religious anniversaries, and the rites of the agricultural cycle.

Manggarai descent is traced through both the males and females, and the circle of kinship is divided into various sub-groups. The center, however, is the nuclear family, composed of a man, woman, and their children. If a Manggarai man wishes to marry, he sends an eloquent woman to the house of the prospective bride. Acting as his representative, she makes the marriage proposal for him in very descriptive language. A bride-price is then paid, dependent on the social status of the woman. After marriage, the young couple immediately establishes their own household.

What Are Their Beliefs?

Islam is the dominant religion in Indonesia today and is practiced by a majority of the population. Before the fourteenth century, Hinduism was widespread in the area but is now practiced by only a small number of people. Less than one-sixth of the population is Christian, primarily Protestant; and many Chinese follow Buddhist-Taoist teachings. Animistic religions (belief that non-human objects have spirits) are still followed by tribes in remote areas.

Half of the Manggarai are Sunni Muslims and most of the rest are animists. As a whole, the island of Flores is largely Catholic, but many of the people have mixed their faith with animistic practices. However, in the past, the western part of the neighboring island of Timor has experienced an outpouring of God's blessing.

What Are Their Needs?

The Manggarai have no Christian resources available in their own language. A great need exists for Christian literature to be translated into their native language. Above all, sustained intercession is necessary if the Manggarai are to come to a saving knowledge of Christ.

Prayer Points

Ask the Lord to send missionaries who will invest their lives in the Manggarai of Indonesia.
Ask the Holy Spirit to grant wisdom and favor to missions agencies focusing on the Manggarai.
Pray that signs and wonders will follow the Manggarai believers as they share Christ with their own people.
Ask God to raise up prayer teams who will begin breaking up the soil through worship and intercession.
Ask the Lord to bring forth a strong Manggarai church for the glory of His name!

Scripture Prayers for the Manggarai in Indonesia.

Profile Source:   Bethany World Prayer Center  

People Name General Manggarai
People Name in Country Manggarai
Alternate Names Ruteng
Population this Country 792,000
Population all Countries 792,000
Total Countries 1
Indigenous Yes
Progress Scale 3
Unreached No
Frontier People Group No
GSEC 1  (per
Pioneer Workers Needed
People ID 13504
ROP3 Code 106256
ROP25 Code 305126
ROP25 Name Manggarai
Country Indonesia
Region Asia, Southeast
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 42  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Flores island, western third.   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Country Indonesia
Region Asia, Southeast
Continent Asia
10/40 Window Yes
National Bible Society Website
Persecution Rank 42  (Open Doors top 50 rank, 1 = highest persecution ranking)
Location in Country Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Flores island, western third..   Source:  Ethnologue 2016
Primary Religion: Christianity
Major Religion Percent
0.00 %
Christianity  (Evangelical 2.00 %)
60.00 %
Ethnic Religions
10.00 %
0.00 %
30.00 %
0.00 %
Other / Small
0.00 %
0.00 %
Primary Language Manggarai (792,000 speakers)
Language Code mqy   Ethnologue Listing
Language Written Yes   ScriptSource Listing
Total Languages 1
Primary Language Manggarai (792,000 speakers)
Language Code mqy   Ethnologue Listing
Total Languages 1
People Groups Speaking Manggarai

Primary Language:  Manggarai

Bible Translation Status  (Years)
Bible-Portions Yes
Bible-New Testament Yes  (2013)
Bible-Complete No
YouVersion NT ( Online
Possible Print Bibles
World Bibles
Forum Bible Agencies
National Bible Societies
World Bible Finder
Virtual Storehouse
Resource Type Resource Name Source
Audio Recordings Audio Bible teaching Global Recordings Network
Film / Video Jesus Film: view in Manggarai Jesus Film Project
General Scripture Earth Gospel resources links Scripture Earth
General YouVersion Bible versions in text and/or audio YouVersion Bibles
Mobile App Android Bible app: Manggarai YouVersion Bibles
Mobile App iOS Bible app: Manggarai YouVersion Bibles
Photo Source Anonymous 
Map Source Bethany World Prayer Center  
Profile Source Bethany World Prayer Center 
Data Sources Data is compiled from various sources. Learn more.

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